Information on the WRTU54G UMA TA

Getting shell / console access

The easiest part is to flash a modified firmware image that removes the root password from the /etc/passwd file in the squashfs.

You can then access the serial console and log in as root without password.

Changing the SEGW / GANC address

On the shell of the device, change to the /nv directory and edit the two lines in rc.conf for UMA_SGW and UMA_UNC to:


Then, use the rawaccess -a rc.conf command to store the changes to flash and reboot the system.

Enabling more logging

In /nv/rc.conf:


Then, use the rawaccess -a rc.conf command to store the changes to flash and reboot the system.

Adding a new CA Certificate

While modifying the firmware, add your new CA root certificate in DER format to /ramdisk_copy/etc/kineto/ and then add the filename and path into a new line in /ramdisk_copy/etc/kineto/init_ike.cfg, like this:

ike ca /etc/kineto/my_new_ca.der

Furthermore, edit /etc/rc.d/init.d/umaset and /etc/rc.d/init.d/RJ11_recovery to each include a line like this:

echo "ike ca /etc/kineto/my_new_ca.der" >> $IKE_CONF

Enabling telnet

Using the toolchain included in the Linksys WRTU54G GPL release, you can cross-compile utelnetd for a compatible uclibc:

./utelnetd-0.1.11 $ make CC=mipsel-linux-gcc
mipsel-linux-gcc -I. -pipe -DSHELLPATH=\"/bin/login\" -Wall -fomit-frame-pointer   -c -o utelnetd.o utelnetd.c
mipsel-linux-gcc  -I. -pipe -DSHELLPATH=\"/bin/login\" -Wall -fomit-frame-pointer utelnetd.o  -o utelnetd
strip  --remove-section=.comment --remove-section=.note utelnetd
./utelnetd-0.1.11 $

You can then include this utelnetd binary into the squashfs image to /usr/sbin/utelnted.

Furthermore, you have to edit /etc/rc.d/rc.proprietary and change the line

[ "`uname -ar | grep diag`" ] && /usr/sbin/utelnetd&



to unconditionally start the telnet daemon at every boot. Alternatively, you can set


in /nv/rc.conf.

Setting up a SEGW

The SEGW needs to

  • allocate a virtual IP to the remote end from a local pool
  • use EAP-SIM to authenticate the peer, using tuples (IMSI/RAND/SRES/Kc)
  • authenticate itself using a certificate that has been signed by the CA certificate installed on the WRT54U
  • provide at least one DNS server via IKEv2 attributes to the peer

compiling strongswan

You can use strongswan-4.4.1 and use the following compile-time configure options:

--enable-eap-radius --enable-eap-aka --enable-sqlite --enable-eap-sim --enable-eap-sim-file --enable-eap-simaka-sql

strongswan configuration files


charon {
        threads = 16
        plugins {
                attr {
                        dns =

libhydra {
  plugins {
    attr-sql {
      database = sqlite:///etc/ipsec.d/ipsec.db


config setup
        charondebug="ike 2, knl 2, net 2, cfg 2"

conn %default

conn uma-segw


Populate this with SIM authentication triplets like this (identity derived of IMSI, RAND, SRES, Kc):,00000000000000000000000000000000,11111111,2222222222222222


: RSA /etc/ipsec.d/private/segw_key_raw.pem


This is the PEM file of your certificate for the SEGW, using the CN of the FQDN.


This is the CA root certificate of the CA that has issued your segw_cert.pem


This is the raw RSA private key for your segw_cert.pem, and is not PKCS8.

make sure your private key is not PKCS8

The default script of openssl generates private keys in PKCS8 format, which is not supported by charon of OpenSWAN. you have to convert the PKCS8 into raw RSA files like this:

openssl rsa -in my_privatekey.pem -out my_privatekey_raw.pem

SEGW tweaks for specific phones

Nokia C7

IMSI to EAP-SIM identity

the derivation of the EAP-SIM identity from the IMSI works slightly different. If the IMSI starts with 9017000 then nokia will generate as opposed to the in Blackberry and the WRTU54G.

the identity at the IKE level is different

A blackberry connects: looking for peer configs matching[%any]...[] i.e. it uses identity[%any] for the segw (left) side.

A nokia C7 connects: looking for peer configs matching[]...[] i.e. it uses the identity[] for the segw (left) side.

A workaround is currently not known. It might help to add a leftid to ipsec.conf

Nokia 6301

This phone seems to have only been sold to Orange UK, and thus only a hard-coded UMA/GAN SEGW and UNC are configured in it.

No matter which sim is inserted, it will always do a DNS lookup for and then establish an IKE session to the resulting IP. Interestingly, it is first trying to resolve AAAA (IPv6), which fails and is followed by a fall-back to IPv4.

Using a dns proxy it would of course be easy to return our own SEGW IP address to that host name. However, without any means of installing our own SEGW certificate (or signing CA certificate), it would never authenticate.

Anyone knowing information how to alter the UMA/GAN profiles in Nokia phones: Please let us know!

Last modified 4 years ago Last modified on Sep 3, 2012, 11:50:48 AM

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